Research and Media Highlights

Below are publication and media links highlighting research completed by the Center for Cyber Strategy and Policy Faculty and Fellows.

Scholarship and Publications

Vićić, Jelena, and Richard Harknett. “Identification-Imitation-Amplification: Understanding Divisive Influence Campaigns through Cyberspace.” Intelligence and National Security, vol. 0, no. 0, 2024, pp. 1–18, https://doi.org/10.1080/02684527.2023.2300933.

Richard Harknett, “The Distribution of Power, Security, and Interconnectedness: The Structure of Digital International Relations,” in Corneliu Bjola and Markus Kornprobst, eds., Digital International Relations: Technology, Agency, and Order (London: Routledge, 2024): 29-50.

Kovac, Igor. “Definitions of Geopolitics.” International Studies, Oxford Research Encyclopedias, Oxford University Press, 13 Dec. 2023, https://doi.org/10.1093/acrefore/9780190846626.013.823.

Michael Fischerkeller and Richard Harknett, “Cyber Persistence, the Intelligence Contest and Strategic Outcomes,” in Robert Chesney and Max Smeets, Deter, Disrupt, Deceive: Assessing Cyber Conflict as an Intelligence Contest (Washington, DC: Georgetown University Press, 2023): 109-133

Fischerkeller, Michael P., et al. “Cyber Persistence Theory in the Russo-Ukrainian War.” Binding Hook, 7 Nov. 2023, https://bindinghook.com/articles-book-binder/cyber-persistence-theory-in-the-russo-ukrainian-war/.

Vivic, Jelena, and Gregory Winger. “What the Defense Department’s Cyber Strategy Says About Cyber Conflict.” Lawfare, 19 Oct. 2023, https://www.lawfaremedia.org/article/what-the-defense-department-s-cyber-strategy-says-about-cyber-conflict.

Winger, Gregory, et al. “Electoral Crisis Communications: Combatting Disinformation & the Contest for Electoral Legitimacy.” American Politics Research, vol. 51, no. 5, Sept. 2023, pp. 608–18, https://doi.org/10.1177/1532673X231184440.

Hendry, John, Michael Loadenthal, Rebecca Wilson, and Anthony Lemieux. “Part 3: Recruiting and Vetting Candidates for Membership in The Base.” VOX - Pol, April 26, 2023. https://www.voxpol.eu/part-3-recruiting-and-vetting-candidates-for-membership-in-the-base/.

Harknett, Richard J., Michael P. Fischerkeller, and Emily O. Goldman. “U.K. National Cyber Force, Responsible Cyber Power, and Cyber Persistence Theory.” Lawfare, April 5, 2023. https://www.lawfareblog.com/uk-national-cyber-force-responsible-cyber-power-and-cyber-persistence-theory.

Winger, Gregory, Stephanie Ellis, and Daniel Glover. “Bridging the Digital Gap: Teaching Cyber Strategy and Policy through a Crisis Simulation.” International Studies Perspectives, February 23, 2023. doi:10.1093/isp/ekad001.

Richard J. Harknett, Igor Kovač. “The Need for the Digital Dollar.” The National Interest, 26 Jan. 2023, https://nationalinterest.org/feature/need-digital-dollar-206153.

Loadenthal, Michael. “[2022] End-to-End Encryption Technology and Digital-Operational Security Amongst January 6 Capitol Defendants (Written Statement, Select Committee to Investigate the January 6th Attack on the United States Capitol).” Select Committee to Investigate the January 6th Attack on the United States Capitol, January 1, 2022, 26. https://www.academia.edu/82812902/_2022_End_to_End_encryption_Technology_and_Digital_Operational_Security_Amongst_January_6_Capitol_Defendants_Written_statement_Select_Committee_to_Investigate_the_January_6th_Attack_on_the_United_States_Capitol_

Loadenthal, Michael. “[2022] The Prosecution Project: Data-Driven Anti-Fascism in a Post-Truth, Proto-Fascist Era.” Edited by Adrian Parr and Santiago Zabala. Outspoken: A Manifesto for the 21st Century, January 1, 2022. https://www.academia.edu/69637178/_2022_The_Prosecution_Project_Data_driven_anti_fascism_in_a_post_truth_proto_fascist_era.

Winger, Gregory H., and Miguel Alberto Gomez. “The Philippine-US Alliance Has a Major Blind Spot: Cybersecurity.” The Diplomat, August 4, 2022. https://thediplomat.com/2022/08/the-philippine-us-alliance-has-a-major-blind-spot-cybersecurity/.

Fischerkeller, Michael P., Emily O. Goldman, and Richard J. Harknett. “Persistent Engagement in Cyberspace Is a Strategic Imperative.” Text. The National Interest, July 6, 2022. https://nationalinterest.org/blog/techland-when-great-power-competition-meets-digital-world/persistent-engagement-cyberspace.

Gomez, Miguel Alberto, and Gregory Winger. “Third-Party Countries in Cyber Conflict: Understanding the Dynamics of Public Opinion Following Offensive Cyber Operations.” In 2022 14th International Conference on Cyber Conflict: Keep Moving! (CyCon), 700:117–34, 2022. doi:10.23919/CyCon55549.2022.9811075.

Fischerkeller, Michael P., Emily Goldman, and Richard J. Harknett. Cyber Persistence Theory: Redefining National Security in Cyberspace. Bridging the Gap. Oxford, New York: Oxford University Press, 2022. https://global.oup.com/academic/product/cyber-persistence-theory-9780197638255?cc=us&lang=en&.

Dr. Richard Harknett recognized for research funding:
“These UC Researchers and Scholars Are Leading Us into the Future.” Accessed January 27, 2022. https://research.uc.edu/news/2022/01/11/these-uc-researchers-and-scholars-are-leading-us-into-the-future.

Benjamin Bartlett, Ph D., Mark Bryan Manantan, Mihoko Matsubara, Ph D. Crystal Pryor, Justin Sherman, Ph D. Wilhelm Vosse, and Ph D. Gregory Winger. “US-Japan Cybersecurity Cooperation: Beyond the Tokyo 2020 Olympics,” November 13, 2021. https://pacforum.org/publication/us-japan-cybersecurity-cooperation-beyond-the-tokyo-2020-olympics.

Edwards, Safa Shahwan, and Simon Handler. “The 5×5—How Retaliation Shapes Cyber Conflict.” Atlantic Council, May 13, 2021. https://www.atlanticcouncil.org/content-series/the-5x5/the-5x5-how-retaliation-shapes-cyber-conflict/.

Kreitz, Colonel Eric. Cyber Strategy and Tactical Cyber Integration. The Indigenous Approach- 1st Special Forces Group: Preferred Partners in INDOPACOM, 2021. https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=Z6r_1gbiFWw.

UC - Office of Research. Trusted Democracy in the Digital Age, Flashpoint Series,  January 15, 2021. https://youtu.be/E9LHb07tVX8?t=398.

Winger, Gregory H. “SolarWinds Attack: Lessons for the Philippines-US Alliance.” Philippine Strategic Forum, January 4, 2021. https://www.stratforumph.com/post/solarwinds-attack-lessons-for-the-philippines-us-alliance.

Harknett, Richard J. “SolarWinds: The Need for Persistent Engagement.” Lawfare, December 23, 2020. https://www.lawfareblog.com/solarwinds-need-persistent-engagement.

Calfano, Brian, Richard J. Harknett, Gregory Winger, and Jelena Vicic. “Reporting Government Reactions to Claims of Electoral Fraud Can Help Maintain Public Trust in the Media.” LSE US Centre, December 3, 2020. https://blogs.lse.ac.uk/usappblog/2020/12/03/reporting-government-reactions-to-claims-of-electoral-fraud-can-help-maintain-public-trust-in-the-media/.

Calfano, Brian, Richard J. Harknett, Gregory Winger, and Jelena Vicic. “Electoral Officials Can Do Little to Combat Information Which Undermines Elections.” LSE US Centre, October 27, 2020. https://blogs.lse.ac.uk/usappblog/2020/10/27/electoral-officials-can-do-little-to-combat-information-which-undermines-elections/.

Winger, Gregory. “China’s Disinformation Campaign in the Philippines.” Politics. The Diplomat, October 6, 2020. https://thediplomat.com/2020/10/chinas-disinformation-campaign-in-the-philippines/.

Chesney, Robert, and Max Smeets. “Policy Roundtable: Cyber Conflict as an Intelligence Contest.” Texas National Security Review, September 17, 2020. https://tnsr.org/roundtable/policy-roundtable-cyber-conflict-as-an-intelligence-contest/.

Harknett, Richard J. “The Strategic Importance of Cyber Persistence.” In Bled Strategic Times, 12–13. Bled, Slovenia: Ministry of Foreign Affairs of the Republic of Slovenia, 2020. https://bledstrategicforum.org/wp-content/uploads/2020/08/BSF-Times-2020.pdf.

Work, JD, and Richard Harknett. “Troubled Vision: Understanding Recent Israeli–Iranian Offensive Cyber Exchanges.” Atlantic Council, July 22, 2020. https://www.atlanticcouncil.org/in-depth-research-reports/issue-brief/troubled-vision-understanding-israeli-iranian-offensive-cyber-exchanges/.

Hamman, Seth T, Jelena Vićić, Jack Mewhirter, Philip White, and Richard J Harknett. “Deciphering Cyber Operations: The Use of Methods and Simulations for Studying Military Concepts in Cyberspace.” The Cyber Defense Review 5, no. 1 (Spring 2020): 135–50. https://cyberdefensereview.army.mil/Portals/6/CDR%20V5N1%20-%2009_Hamman_WEB.pdf.

Fischerkeller, Michael P., Richard J. Harknett, and Jelena Vicic. “The Limits of Deterrence and the Need for Persistence.” In The Cyber Deterrence Problem, edited by Aaron F. Brantly, 21–38. United Kingdom: Rowman & Littlefield Publishers, 2020. https://rowman.com/ISBN/9781786615640/The-Cyber-Deterrence-Problem

Harknett, Richard J. “Progress Is the Promise in National Cybersecurity Strategy.” Lawfare, March 23, 2020. https://www.lawfareblog.com/progress-promise-national-cybersecurity-strategy.

Harknett, Richard J., and Max Smeets. “Cyber Campaigns and Strategic Outcomes.” Journal of Strategic Studies, March 4, 2020. doi:10.1080/01402390.2020.1732354.

Fischerkeller, Michael P., and Richard J. Harknett. “Persistent Engagement and Cost Imposition: Distinguishing Between Cause and Effect.” Lawfare, February 6, 2020. https://www.lawfareblog.com/persistent-engagement-and-cost-imposition-distinguishing-between-cause-and-effect.

“Red Team Member Review Analysis.” US Cyber Solarium Commission Draft Report. US Cyber Solarium Commission, January 3, 2020. https://www.solarium.gov/report.

Fischerkeller, Michael P., and Richard J. Harknett. “A Response on Persistent Engagement and Agreed Competition.” Lawfare, June 27, 2019. https://www.lawfareblog.com/response-persistent-engagement-and-agreed-competition.

Fischerkeller, Michael P., and Richard J. Harknett. “Through Persistent Engagement, the U.S. Can Influence ‘Agreed Competition.’” Lawfare, April 15, 2019. https://www.lawfareblog.com/through-persistent-engagement-us-can-influence-agreed-competition.

Fischerkeller, Michael P., and Richard J. Harknett. “What Is Agreed Competition in Cyberspace?” Lawfare, February 19, 2019. https://www.lawfareblog.com/what-agreed-competition-cyberspace.

Fischerkeller, Michael P., and Richard J. Harknett. “Persistent Engagement, Agreed Competition, and Cyberspace Interaction Dynamics and Escalation.” The Cyber Defense Review, 2019, 267–87. https://www.jstor.org/stable/26846132.

Harknett, Richard J. Cyberspace as a Strategic Environment. National Security Archive, 2019. https://youtu.be/tA1Uixj44ic.

Media

Paybarah, Azi. “Marjorie Taylor Greene Isn’t the Only Politician to Be a Swatting Target.” Washington Post, 29 Dec. 2023, https://www.washingtonpost.com/politics/2023/12/28/marjorie-taylor-greene-others-swatted-christmas/.

Loadenthal, Michael. “How Palestinian Militants Use Telegram Videos in the Mideast Conflict.” DFRLab, 12 Dec. 2023, https://dfrlab.org/2023/12/12/how-palestinian-militants-use-telegram-videos-in-the-mideast-conflict/.

Bowling, Anne. “UC Student Explores Rare Opportunity in Cybersecurity Studies.” UC News, 21 Nov. 2023, https://www.uc.edu/news/articles/2023/11/uc-political-science-major-jacob-lesick-makes-waves-in-cybersecurity.html.

Planalp, Brian. “Couple Gifts University of Cincinnati $10M for Internationally Renowned Cybersecurity Center.” Cincinnati Business Courier, 2 Nov. 2023, https://www.bizjournals.com/cincinnati/news/2023/11/02/portway-uc-donation-cybersecurity-center.html.

Weldon, Casey. “UC Receives $10M Gift to Support Center for Cyber Strategy and Policy.” Movers & Makers, 3 Nov. 2023, https://moversmakers.org/2023/11/02/uc-receives-10m-gift-to-support-center-for-cyber-strategy-and-policy/.

Mace, Julia. “Alumnus Makes $10 Million Bequest to the University of Cincinnati.” UC News, 2 Nov. 2023, https://www.uc.edu/news/articles/2023/10/patrick-and-malle-portway-make-10-million-bequest-to-university-of-cincinnati.html.

Miller, Michael. “Tanium: UC Expert Explains Cybersecurity Risks from Israeli-Hamas Conflict.” UC News, 13 Oct. 2023, https://www.uc.edu/news/articles/2023/10/wlw-turns-to-uc-political-science-expert-to-explain-israeli-hamas-conflict.html.

Harknett, Richard J. Ohio leaders work to protect state, local governments from cyberattacks. Interview by Cassy Arsenault, July 17, 2023. https://local12.com/news/local/ohio-leaders-work-to-protect-state-local-governments-from-cyberattacks-ohioans-mark-bell-security-outreach-cyber-reserve-volunteer-computers-university-cincinnati-ohio.

Dykes, Todd. “Volunteers with Ohio’s Cyber Reserve Fend off Simulated Cyber Attacks at University of Cincinnati.” WLWT, July 17, 2023. https://www.wlwt.com/article/volunteers-cyber-reserve-simulated-cyber-cincinnati/44568251.

Petersen, Scott. Ohio Cyber Reserve participates in cybersecurity training at the University of Cincinnati. Interview by Anna Azallion, July 17, 2023. https://www.wcpo.com/news/state/state-ohio/ohio-cyber-reserve-participates-in-cybersecurity-training-at-the-university-of-cincinnati.

Swartsell, Nick. “University of Cincinnati Hosts Statewide Cyber Security Training Event.” WVXU, July 18, 2023. https://www.wvxu.org/science-and-technology/2023-07-18/university-cincinnati-statewide-cyber-security-training.

Harknett, Richard J. Blinken Walks a Diplomatic Tightrope to Beijing. Interview by Alex Willemyns, 13 June 2023, https://www.rfa.org/english/news/china/blinken-beijing-thaw-06132023131634.html.

Experts Give Insight into U.S., China Relations. Accessed May 25, 2023. https://www.fox19.com/video/2023/04/14/experts-give-insight-into-us-china-relations/.

No Name Podcast. Cyber Persistence Theory. Accessed May 9, 2023. https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=dYUwZCnDgLM.

Rand, David. “What Many Get Wrong About Persistent Engagement and Why It Matters to Business | Focal Point.” Tanium, May 8, 2023. https://www.tanium.com/blog/what-many-get-wrong-about-persistent-engagement-and-why-it-matters-to-business/.

Harknett, Richard J. Governors Keep TikTok Accounts Active Even as States Ban It. Interview by Nikki Davidson, 17 Apr. 2023, https://www.govtech.com/biz/data/should-state-governors-delete-their-tiktok.

CCSP pioneered a collaborative program with the Philippine Commission on Higher Education (CHED) to advance international cybersecurity through the Defending the Digital National Initiative (DDNI) 12-week hybrid program.  Image: Philippine Army Reserve Officers LTC Jan Chavez-Arceo and 1LT Amando Pulido, participants in the DDNI program, presented an OCRI badge to Army Signal Regimen Commander BGEN Alejandro Papa, The Philippines, April 2023. Image courtesy of Jan Chavez-Arceo.

Patranobis, Sutirtho. “Hutong Cat | With CPC’s Control on Companies, a Worried US Considers TikTok Ban.” Hindustan Times, April 3, 2023, sec. World News. https://www.hindustantimes.com/world-news/hutong-cat-with-cpc-s-control-on-companies-a-worried-us-considers-tiktok-ban-101680521723807.html.

Christian, Alex. “Can the West Curb Its Addiction to Chinese Tech?” Coda Story, April 6, 2023. https://www.codastory.com/authoritarian-tech/chinese-tech-tiktok-ban/.

WKRC, Brad Underwood. “UC Professor Helps Build the United States’ New Cybersecurity Strategy.” University of Cincinnati, Digital Futures: WKRC, April 5, 2023. https://local12.com/news/local/one-uc-professor-is-helping-to-build-the-united-states-new-cybersecurity-strategy-tech-it-cyber-crime-russia-ukraine-hack-hacked-safety-community-university-cyber-range-institute-cincinnati-ohio.

“UC Scholar Helped Shape New US Cybersecurity Strategy.” WVXU, April 3, 2023. https://www.wvxu.org/podcast/focus-on-technology/2023-04-03/uc-scholar-helped-shape-new-us-cybersecurity-strategy.

“U.S. Joins a Growing Number of Governments Moving toward Banning TikTok.” WVXU. Cincinnati. Accessed March 23, 2023. https://www.wvxu.org/show/cincinnati-edition/2023-03-23/u-s-governments-moving-toward-tiktok-ban.

McKee, Craig, and Taylor Nimmo. “Local Experts Thoughts on Objects Shot Down.” WCPO, February 13, 2023. https://news.yahoo.com/local-experts-thoughts-objects-shot-231025254.html.

Smith, Laura Jones, Maggie. Seizing the Digital Initiative: Zero Trust and Persistence in the Cyber Domain. Irregular Warfare Initiative. Accessed February 10, 2023. https://mwi.usma.edu/seizing-the-digital-initiative-zero-trust-and-persistence-in-the-cyber-domain/.

Thompson, Ann. Kids’ Information Is More Valuable than Adults’. That’s One Reason Schools Are Getting Hacked. Focus on Technology. Accessed November 28, 2022. https://www.wvxu.org/podcast/focus-on-technology/2022-11-21/kid-information-hacked-school-university.

Shaner, Kyle. “Ohio Cyber Range Institute Hosts Cybersecurity Symposium.” UC News. October 13, 2022. https://www.uc.edu/news/articles/2022/10/ohio-cyber-range-institute-hosts-cybersecurity-symposium.html.

Ignatius, David. “Opinion | Will Deterrence Have a Role in the Cyberspace ‘Forever War’?” Washington Post, September 15, 2022, sec. Opinions. https://www.washingtonpost.com/opinions/2022/09/15/deterrence-cyberspace-conflict-new-strategy/.

Kong, Sasha. “China Ramps up Disinformation Campaign on Uyghurs in Xinjiang.” FairPlanet. Accessed August 26, 2022. https://www.fairplanet.org/story/china-ramps-up-disinformation-campaign-on-uyghurs-in-xinjiang/.

“The Ethical and Privacy Concerns over Deep Fakes and AI and Our Democracy.” WVXU. Cincinnati: WVXU, August 8, 2022. https://www.wvxu.org/show/cincinnati-edition/2022-08-08/ethical-privacy-concerns-deep-fakes-ai.

Cottingham, Tom, and Richard J. Harknett. New Flight Plans: Expert talks politics in relation to security and why he hates Cybersecurity Awareness Month, July 25, 2022. https://flyoverfuture.com/itsr-featured-interview/from-political-science-to-cybersecurity/.

Book Launch: Cyber Persistence Theory, Rethinking National Security in Cyberspace. Washington, D.C: Center for Strategic & International Studies, 2022. https://www.csis.org/events/book-launch-cyber-persistence-theory-rethinking-national-security-cyberspace.

Dave Aitel. Book Review: Cyber Persistence Theory. Video, 2022. https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=tSZ497sE8b0

Koenig, Angela. “UC Launches School for Public and International Affairs: SPIA.” UC News, April 20, 2022. https://www.uc.edu/news/articles/2022/04/uc-opens-new-school-of-public-and-international-affairs.html.

Christian, Paula. “UC Expert Urges Vigilance in Face of Possible Russian Cyberattacks.” WCPO, March 2, 2022. https://www.wcpo.com/news/local-news/i-team/uc-expert-urges-vigilance-in-face-of-possible-russian-cyberattacks.

Hill, Michael. “Wiper Malware Targets Ukraine as Military Conflict Extends into Cyberspace.” CSO Online, February 28, 2022. https://www.csoonline.com/article/3651532/wiper-malware-targets-ukraine-as-military-conflict-extends-into-cyberspace.html.

Styles, Jasmine. “Speed of Information from Ukraine Invasion ‘Unprecedented.’” WCPO ABC Cincinnati, February 28, 2022. https://www.wcpo.com/news/world/videos-photos-of-russias-invasion-of-ukraine-spreading-at-unprecedented-speeds-in-human-history.

WKRC, Christian Hauser. “Security Expert Warns Local Companies Must Be Vigilant amid Cyberattacks Related to Russia.” WKRC, February 23, 2022. https://local12.com/news/local/security-expert-warns-local-companies-must-be-vigilant-amid-cyberattacks-related-to-russia-cincinnati-local-12-wkrc-tristate-ohio-kentucky-indiana-cyber-security-colonial-pipeline-supply-chain.

Grobe, Anna Mulrine. “With Russian Hackers in Mind, NATO Takes Hard Look at Cyber Strategy.” Christian Science Monitor, February 2, 2022. https://www.csmonitor.com/World/Europe/2022/0202/With-Russian-hackers-in-mind-NATO-takes-hard-look-at-cyber-strategy.

Shaner, Kyle. “UC Partners with U.S. Cyber Command.” UC News, February 1, 2022. https://www.uc.edu/news/articles/2022/01/uc-partners-with-us-cyber-command.html.

U. S. Cyber Command Public Affairs. “CYBERCOM Announces Academic Engagement Network Partners.” U.S. Cyber Command, January 5, 2022. https://www.cybercom.mil/Media/News/Article/2889614/cybercom-announces-academic-engagement-network-partners/.

Krans, Brian. “The Big Business of Medical Misinformation.” Healthline, October 22, 2021. https://www.healthline.com/health-news/the-big-business-of-medical-misinformation.

Times, The Manila. “PH Govt, Univ Officials Participate in US-Led Cybersecurity Workshop.” The Manila Times, August 12, 2021. https://www.manilatimes.net/2021/08/12/campus-press/ph-govt-univ-officials-participate-in-us-led-cybersecurity-workshop/1810592.

Fisher, Max. “Constant but Camouflaged, Flurry of Cyberattacks Offers Glimpse of New Era.” The New York Times, July 20, 2021, sec. The Interpreter. https://www.nytimes.com/2021/07/20/world/global-cyberattacks.html?referringSource=articleShare.

Lobo-Fernandes, Luis. “Presidência Portuguesa do Conselho da UE: Um breve balanço da frente externa | Opinião | PÚBLICO.” Publico.pt, July 15, 2021. https://www.publico.pt/2021/07/15/opiniao/opiniao/presidencia-portuguesa-conselho-ue-breve-balanco-frente-externa-1970527.

Koenig, Angela. “Faculty Awards 2021: Richard Harknett.” UC News, April 6, 2021. https://www.uc.edu/news/articles/2021/03/uc-faculty-awards--richard-harknett.html.

Bach, John. “UC Joins National CyberCorps to Defend America’s Cyberspace.” UC News, February 11, 2021. https://www.uc.edu/news/articles/2021/02/uc-receives-4m-nsf-grant-to-prep-students-to-defend-americas-cyberspace.html.

Thompson, Ann. “How To Rebuild Trust In Democracy In The Digital Age.” Cincinnati Public Radio_WVXU 91.7, January 15, 2021. https://www.wvxu.org/post/how-rebuild-trust-democracy-digital-age.

Office of Research, University of Cincinnati. “Findings Staff Report.” Office of Research News, UC, January 11, 2021. https://research.uc.edu/news/2021/01/11/’these-awardees-represent-the-best-of-the-best.

Harknett, Richard J. Expert intervew: Richard Harknett. Interview by Steven Bowcut. Website: cybersecurityguide.org, November 2020. https://cybersecurityguide.org/expert-interviews/richard-harknett/.

Whitsett, Adrian. “Fact Check Friday: How Disinformation Campaigns Reduce Trust in Election.” WCPO, November 6, 2020. https://www.wcpo.com/news/election-2020/fact-check-friday-how-disinformation-campaigns-reduce-trust-in-election.

Thompson, Ann. “Understanding Why Some Say China’s Internet Model Should Be Stoppped.” News. Cincinnati Public Radio_WVXU91.7, November 2, 2020. https://www.wvxu.org/post/understanding-why-some-say-chinas-internet-model-should-be-stoppped.

Reader, Ruth. “Mistrust of Public Officials May Help Election Day Misinformation Spread.” Fast Company, October 31, 2020. https://www.fastcompany.com/90570746/debunking-by-secretaries-of-state-is-hard-but-prebunking-could-help.

Koenig, Angela. “Study Tests Whether Election Truths Can Combat Lies.” News. UC News, October 28, 2020. https://uc.edu/news/articles/2020/10/n20958682.html.

Koesters, Matt. “UC Hosts Virtual Cybersecurity Education Symposium.” UC News, October 20, 2020. https://uc.edu/news/articles/2020/10/n20954956.html.

Koenig, Angela. “UC Answers: What Are UC Experts Doing to Ensure Safe Elections?” UC News, September 1, 2020. https://uc.edu/news/articles/2020/08/n20942046.html.

DiTirro, Tessa. “Protecting Your Vote: UC Surveying Voters on Cyber Threats, Misinformation.” Video. WKRC - Local 12, July 29, 2020. https://local12.com/news/local/protecting-your-vote-uc-surveying-voters-on-cyber-threats-misinformation-cincinnati.

Koenig, Angela. “Cybersecurity Experts Researching Digital Interference in November Elections- UC Researchers on Alert: Digital Age Has Potential to Influence the Election Process and Outcomes.” UC News, July 27, 2020. https://uc.edu/news/articles/2020/07/n20931882.html.

Bowling, Anne. “UC Cybersecurity Research Inspires Congressional Action.” UC News, July 21, 2020. https://uc.edu/news/articles/2020/07/n20932698.html.

Seward, Larry. “Experts at UC Battling Election Cyberattacks.” University of Cincinnati: WCPO Cincinnati, Channel 9, July 1, 2020. https://news.yahoo.com/experts-uc-battling-election-cyberattacks-212313445.html.

Ignatius, David. “Opinion | The Most Damaging Part of Trump’s Response to the Mueller Report.” Washington Post, May 30, 2019. https://www.washingtonpost.com/opinions/america-has-gone-to-cyberwar/2019/05/30/7a1b25c0-8311-11e9-933d-7501070ee669_story.html.