McMicken College of Arts & SciencesMcMicken College of Arts & SciencesUniversity of Cincinnati

McMicken College of Arts & Sciences

Department of Physics

Department of Physics

Physics Department Courses

1000 Level Courses

PHYS1003C Concepts in Physics
Credits: 3
The topics within this integrated lecture-laboratory course align with the State of Ohio Science Standards for early childhood education. The course develops an understanding of both physics content knowledge as well as the pedagogical knowledge necessary to teach physical science concepts with understanding.

PHYS1010 In the Beginning - A Physical Description
Credits: 3
Breadth of Knowledge Code: NS
A detailed treatment of the physics of the first three minutes of the existence of the universe, with special emphasis on current ideas in cosmology and unified theories of elementary particle physics.

PHYS1017 How Things Work: From Roller Coasters to Superconductors
Credits: 3
Breadth of Knowledge Code: TI NS
How Things Work is a practical introduction into the Physics and Science of everyday life. This course considers objects from our everyday environment and their principles of operation, histories, and relationships to one another. The emphasis of Physics 1017 is on Newton's Laws, and how they are involved in roller coasters, submarines, and rocket ships, and also topics in Electricity and Magnetism which are used in consumer electronics, superconductors, kitchen magnets and power distribution in cities.

PHYS1018 How Things Work: From GPS Satellites to Global Warming
Credits: 3
Breadth of Knowledge Code: TI NS
How Things Work is a practical introduction into the Physics and Science of everyday life. This course considers objects from our everyday environment and their principles of operation, histories, and relationships to one another. The emphasis of Physics 1018 is on Thermodynamics, Relativity, Sound, Optics and Quantum Mechanics and how they are involved in Global Warming, Automobiles, Air- Conditioning and Musical Instruments.

PHYS1020 Astronomy: The Solar System
Credits: 3
Breadth of Knowledge Code: NS
The sky and its motions; lunar motion & phases; tides; eclipses; the seasons; light; telescopes; the history of astronomy; comparative planetology; comets, asteroids, and other small bodies of the solar system; the formation and evolution of the solar system; the detection and characterization of other planetary systems.

PHYS1021 Astronomy: Stars & Galaxies
Credits: 3
Breadth of Knowledge Code: FA NS
The structure and evolution of the universe from the smallest to the largest physicals scales. Topics to be cover include: The Sun and solar activity; the physical properties of stars; star formation, evolution, and death; Stellar remnants, including black holes; The nature of interstellar matter; The structure and evolution of the Milky Way galaxy and other galaxies; active galaxies and quasars; the large-scale structure of the universe; the evolution of the universe; dark matter, dark energy and high-energy physics.

PHYS1022 Astronomy: Life in the Universe
Credits: 3
Breadth of Knowledge Code: NS
The scientific investigation of life elsewhere in the universe. Topics to be covered include: The nature of science and scientific evidence; the structure and evolution of the universe; the geology and geological evolution of the Earth and other planets in the solar system; the chemical and biological evolution of life on Earth; the search for life within our solar system; the nature of other planetary systems; habitable regions around other stars; the search for extraterrestrial signals and the detection of life on other worlds.

PHYS1032 Meteorology
Credits: 3
Breadth of Knowledge Code: NS
Basic concepts in classical physics will be developed in a qualitative manner and then applied to the most common meteorological phenomena including cloud formation, storms, and rainbows. A qualitative physical understanding of these phenomena will emerge.

PHYS1033 The Physics of Sound and Music
Credits: 3
Breadth of Knowledge Code: NS
This course is an introduction to the physics of sound and the perception of sound, based on an understanding of physical concepts including vibrations, waves, wave motion, and the production, transmission and reception of sound. Musical instruments and architectural acoustics are primary examples. The course is intended primarily for non-science majors.

PHYS1035 The Elegant Universe
Credits: 3
Breadth of Knowledge Code: NS
Topics from Modern Physics, such as Quantum Mechanics, Special Relativity, General Relativity, string theory, and the extra dimensions of space, presented in a non-mathematical, conceptual way. Discussion of experimental results that support these ideas, conflicts between theories, and attempts by physicists to construct a grand unified theory of everything.

PHYS1051 General Physics I (Algebra-based)
Credits: 4
Prerequisites
Breadth of Knowledge Code: QR NS
This course covers topics in physics using methods of algebra and trigonometry, including vector arithmetic. The course includes the study of motion in one and two dimensions, and the applications of the concepts of force, work, energy, and momentum to linear and rotational motion. Simple harmonic motion, waves, elementary thermodynamics, and properties of solids, fluids, and gases are also explored. As designated by TAG: co-requisites are College Algebra (MATH 1034) and Pre-calculus (MATH 1026).

PHYS1051L General Physics Lab I (Algebra-based)
Credits: 1
Prerequisites
Breadth of Knowledge Code: QR NS
The lab includes the study of motion in one and two dimensions, and the applications of the concepts of force, work, energy, and momentum to linear and rotational motion for students of PHYS 1051. Simple harmonic motion, waves, elementary thermodynamics, and properties of solids, fluids, and gases are also explored. A working knowledge of algebra will be needed. Pre- or Co-requisite: General Physics I (PHYS 1051)

PHYS1052 General Physics II (Algebra-based)
Credits: 4
Prerequisites
Breadth of Knowledge Code: QR NS
This course covers topics in physics using methods of algebra and trigonometry, including vector arithmetic. The course includes the study of static and moving charges and the electric and magnetic fields that they generate. The course explores simple circuit analysis, including resistors, capacitors, and inductors. Elementary concepts of quantum mechanics are explored and applied to atomic and nuclear physics. As designated by TAG: co- requisites are College Algebra (MATH 1034) and Pre-calculus (MATH 1026).

PHYS1052L General Physics Lab II (Algebra-based)
Credits: 1
Prerequisites
Breadth of Knowledge Code: QR NS
The lab includes the study of static and moving charges and the electric and magnetic fields that they generate for students of PHYS 1052. The lab explores simple circuit analysis, including resistors, capacitors, and inductors. In addition, the lab includes topics in waves, geometric optics, diffraction and interference of light waves. A working knowledge of algebra will be needed. Pre- or Co-requisite: General Physics II (PHYS 1052)

PHYS1903 Algebra-based Physics III Bridge
Credits: 3
Prerequisites
Breadth of Knowledge Code: QR NS
This course covers topics in physics using methods of algebra and trigonometry, including vector arithmetic. The course includes the study of simple harmonic motion, waves, elementary thermodynamics, and properties of solids, fluids, and gases are also explored. Elementary concepts of quantum mechanics are explored and applied to atomic and nuclear physics. Pre- requisites are Algebra-based, Physics I and II in quarters (PHYS101, PHYS102).

PHYS1913 Algebra-based Physics IIII Lab Bridge Credits: 1
Prerequisites
Breadth of Knowledge Code: QR NS
The lab includes the study of simple harmonic motion, waves, elementary thermodynamics, and properties of solids, fluids, and gases are also explored. In addition, the lab includes topics in waves, geometric optics, diffraction and interference of light waves. A working knowledge of algebra will be needed. Designed for students taking the PHYS 1053 Bridge course.

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2000 Level Courses

PHYS2001 College Physics I (Calculus-based)
Credits: 4
Prerequisites
Breadth of Knowledge Code: QR NS
This course covers topics in physics using methods of calculus, algebra, and trigonometry, including vector arithmetic. The course includes the study of motion in one and two dimensions, and the applications of the concepts of force, work, energy, and momentum to linear and rotational motion. Simple harmonic motion, waves, elementary thermodynamics, and properties of solids, fluids, and gases are also explored. As designated by TAG: co-requisite is Calculus I (MATH 1061).

PHYS2001L College Physics Lab I (Calculus-based)
Credits: 1
Prerequisites
Breadth of Knowledge Code: QR NS
The lab includes the study of motion in one and two dimensions, and the applications of the concepts of force, work, energy, and momentum to linear and rotational motion for students of PHYS2001. Simple harmonic motion, waves, elementary thermodynamics, and properties of solids, fluids, and gases are also explored. A working knowledge of calculus will be needed. Pre- or Co-requisite: College Physics I (PHYS 2001)

PHYS2002 College Physics II (Calculus-based)
Credits: 4
Prerequisites
Breadth of Knowledge Code: QR NS
This course covers topics in physics using methods of calculus, algebra, and trigonometry, including vector arithmetic. The course includes the study of static and moving charges and the electric and magnetic fields that they generate. The course explores simple circuit analysis, including resistors, capacitors, and inductors. In addition, the course includes topics in waves, geometric optics, diffraction and interference of light waves. Elementary concepts of quantum mechanics are explored and applied to atomic and nuclear physics. As designated by TAG: co-requisite is Calculus II (MATH 1062).

PHYS2002L College Physics Lab II (Calculus-based)
Credits: 1
Prerequisites
Breadth of Knowledge Code: QR NS
The lab includes the study of static and moving charges and the electric and magnetic fields that they generate, for students of PHYS2002. The lab explores simple circuit analysis, including resistors, capacitors, and inductors. In addition, the lab includes topics in waves, geometric optics, diffraction and interference of light waves. A working knowledge of calculus will be needed. Pre- or Co-requisite: College Physics II (PHYS 2002)

PHYS2005 College Physics I (Calculus-based course for physics majors)
Credits: 4
Prerequisites
Breadth of Knowledge Code: QR NS
This course is designed for students pursuing a major in physics and covers topics in physics using methods of calculus, algebra, and trigonometry, including vector arithmetic. The course includes the study of motion in one and two dimensions, and the applications of the concepts of force, work, energy, and momentum to linear and rotational motion. Simple harmonic motion, waves, elementary thermodynamics, and properties of solids, fluids, and gases are also explored. As designated by TAG: co-requisite is Calculus I (MATH 1061).

PHYS2005L College Physics Lab I (Calculus-based course for physics majors)
Credits: 1
Prerequisites
Breadth of Knowledge Code: QR NS
The lab includes the study of motion in one and two dimensions, and the applications of the concepts of force, work, energy, and momentum to linear and rotational motion, for physics majors taking PHYS2005. Simple harmonic motion, waves, elementary thermodynamics, and properties of solids, fluids, and gases are also explored. A working knowledge of calculus is needed. Pre- or Co- requisite: College Physics I for Majors (PHYS 2005)

PHYS2006 College Physics II (Calculus-based course for physics majors)
Credits: 4
Prerequisites
Breadth of Knowledge Code: QR NS
This course is intended for students pursuing a major in physics and covers topics in physics using methods of calculus, algebra, and trigonometry, including vector arithmetic. The course includes the study of static and moving charges and the electric and magnetic fields that they generate. The course explores simple circuit analysis, including resistors, capacitors, and inductors. In addition, the course includes topics in waves, geometric optics, diffraction and interference of light waves. Elementary concepts of quantum mechanics are explored and applied to atomic and nuclear physics. As designated by TAG: co-requisite is Calculus II (MATH 1062).

PHYS2006L College Physics Lab II (Calculus-based course for Physics majors)
Credits: 1
Prerequisites
Breadth of Knowledge Code: QR NS
The lab is intended for students majoring in physics and includes the study of static and moving charges and the electric and magnetic fields that they generate. The lab explores simple circuit analysis, including resistors, capacitors, and inductors. In addition, the lab includes topics in waves, geometric optics, diffraction and interference of light waves. A working knowledge of calculus is needed. Pre- or Co-requisite: College Physics II for Majors (PHYS 2006)

PHYS2076 Semiconductor Physics for Engineers
Credits: 3
Prerequisites
The goal for SEMICONDUCTOR PHYSICS FOR ENGINEERS is to introduce the basic concepts of quantum mechanics and teach students to apply these concepts to a variety of physical situations. This course covers topics in modern physics including the special theory of relativity, wave properties of matter, quantum mechanics, the structure of the atom, statistical physics, molecules and solids, semiconductor theory and devices as well as nuclear physics. Topics on nanostructured materials and on nanoscale electronics will also be covered in this course.

PHYS2903 Calculus-based Physics III Bridge
Credits: 3
Prerequisites
Breadth of Knowledge Code: QR NS
This course covers topics in physics using methods of calculus, algebra and trigonometry, including vector arithmetic. The course includes the study of simple harmonic motion, waves, elementary thermodynamics, and properties of solids, fluids, and gases are also explored. Elementary concepts of quantum mechanics are explored and applied to atomic and nuclear physics. Pre- requisites are Calculus-based, Physics I and II in quarters (PHYS201, PHYS202).

PHYS2913 Calculus-based Physics III Lab Bridge
Credits: 1
Prerequisites
Breadth of Knowledge Code: QR NS
The lab includes the study of simple harmonic motion, waves, elementary thermodynamics, and properties of solids, fluids, and gases are also explored. In addition, the lab includes topics in waves, geometric optics, diffraction and interference of light waves. A working knowledge of calculus and algebra will be needed. Designed for students taking the PHYS 2003 Bridge course.

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3000 Level Courses

PHYS3001C Intermediate Physics I
Credits: 5
Prerequisites
This course is designed to introduce students to the physics and mathematics of waves in both simple and complex systems and to introduce students to special relativity. Topics covered include simple harmonic motion, damped and driven harmonic motion, coupled oscillators and normal modes, waves in the continuum and the application of matrix and Fourier methods to problems in wave physics, the principles of special relativity and the resolution of the classical 'paradoxes' of special relativity.

PHYS3002C Intermediate Physics II
Credits: 5
Prerequisites
This course is a continuation of Intermediate Physics I. Topics covered include relativistic kinematics, relativistic energy and momentum, differential and integral vector calculus and an introduction to quantum mechanics.

PHYS3010 Intermediate Mechanics
Credits: 4
Prerequisites
Material covered includes Newton's laws, oscillations, gravitation, Lagrangian mechanics and Hamiltonian formalism, central-force motion, systems of particles, noninertial references frames, and dynamics of rigid bodies.

PHYS3020 Electricity and Magnetism I
Credits: 3
Prerequisites
The course is the first part of a two-semester sequence on electromagnetism, intended for the junior or senior level.

PHYS3021 Electricity and Magnetism II
Credits: 3
Prerequisites
The course is the second part of a two-semester sequence on electromagnetism, intended for the junior or senior level.

PHYS3030 Thermodynamics and Statistical Physics
Credits: 4
Prerequisites
This course introduces the central concepts, fundamentals and tools of statistical physics and their relationship to thermodynamics.

PHYS3041 Advanced Topics in Astronomy
Credits: 3
Prerequisites
Explores selected topics in astronomy with an in-depth examination of modern astronomical phenomena such as astronomical instrumentation and observational techniques, solar system astronomy and exploration, the birth and death of stars, black holes, and cosmology. Topics may vary from year to year. Can be re- taken up to 2 times for 9 total credits.

PHYS3061 Experiments in Modern Physics
Credits: 3
Prerequisites
This course is designed to introduce students to the techniques of experimental physics. Students will have the opportunity to perform a variety of experiments ranging from canonical experiments such as the Millikan oil drop experiment and x-ray diffraction to recent experiments such as laser tweezers and scanning probe microscopy. The choice of experiments can be tailored to the students interests. This course does not count toward the BS in Physics or Astrophysics.

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4000 Level Courses

PHYS4025 Introduction to Astrophysics I
Credits: 3
Prerequisites
Introduction to modern astrophysics, including stellar structure, compact objects, the interstellar medium, galactic structure, extragalactic astronomy, particle astrophysics and cosmology.

PHYS4026 Introduction to Astrophysics II
Credits: 3
Prerequisites
A continuation of Introduction to Astrophysics I, with concentrated emphasis on a few selected topics from modern astrophysics. Topics may include, but are not limited to: stellar structure, compact objects, the interstellar medium, galactic structure, extragalactic astronomy, particle astrophysics and cosmology.

PHYS4099 Physics Capstone Project
Credits: 3
Prerequisites
A one semester course normally taken in the final semester. It can be taken earlier in the students schedule with permission. The student is required to complete an independent physics research or teaching project under faculty supervision and prepare a written report, a professional poster and give a formal oral presentation on the project and its results. NOTE: approved proposals are required, written by the student and due early in the preceding semester.

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5000 Level Courses

PHYS5001 Special Problems in Physics
Credits: 1
Prerequisites
Special readings or experiments in physics under the direction of individual staff members. Permission of the department head is required. Can be taken for variable credit and multiple times up to 10 credits

PHYS5011 Advanced Laboratory
Credits: 3
Prerequisites
This course is designed to instruct students in the techniques of experimental physics. Students will perform a variety of experiments ranging from canonical experiments such as the Millikan oil drop experiment and x-ray diffraction to recent experiments such as laser tweezers and scanning probe microscopy.

PHYS5041 Special Topics in Physics
Credits: 3
Prerequisites
This course is a venue for delivering special topics in contemporary physics and will vary from year to year. Topics may include: cosmology, space physics, relativity, plasma physics, medical physics, advanced optics, condensed matter physics and string theory. It can be taken multiple times provided the topic is new each time.

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6000 Level Courses

PHYS6010 Introductory Quantum Mechanics I
Credits: 3
First part of a two-course sequence covering the foundations, main applications, and calculational techniques of non-relativistic quantum mechanics.

PHYS6011 Introductory Quantum Mechanics II
Credits: 3
Prerequisites
Second part of a two-course sequence covering the foundations, main applications, and calculational techniques of non-relativistic quantum mechanics.

PHYS6041 Introduction to Computational Physics
Credits: 3
Introduction to computer algebra systems and their applications to physical problems. Topics include numerical and symbolic calculations, graphics, lists and efficient programming.

PHYS6045 Introduction to Quantum Computing
Credits: 3
An introduction to the field of quantum computing. The class will be introductory in nature and should benefit advanced undergraduate and beginning graduate students in electrical engineering, computer science and engineering, mathematics, physics and chemistry.

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7000 Level Courses

PHYS7001 Mathematical Physics
Credits: 4
Mathematical methods for scientists and engineers with emphasis on applications to physics including topics in classical and quantum mechanics, electricity and magnetism, and statistical physics, as well as more advanced topics.

PHYS7002 Statistical Physics
Credits: 4
This course introduces the central concepts, fundamentals and tools of statistical physics. It focuses on the statistical physics of particles.

PHYS7005 Classical Particles and Fields I
Credits: 4
First of a two-semester modern introduction to the dynamics and electrodynamics of particles and fields covering foundational topics necessary for advanced graduate work in physics. Applications and calculational techniques are particularly stressed.

PHYS7006 Classical Particles and Fields II
Credits: 4
Prerequisites
Second of a two-semester modern introduction to the dynamics and electrodynamics of particles and fields covering foundational topics necessary for advanced graduate work in physics. Applications and calculational techniques are particularly stressed.

PHYS7010 Quantum Mechanics I
Credits: 4
First part of a two-course sequence covering the foundations, main applications, and calculational techniques of non-relativistic quantum mechanics and the Dirac equation.

PHYS7011 Quantum Mechanics II
Credits: 4
Prerequisites
Second part of a two-course sequence covering the foundations, main applications, and calculational techniques of non-relativistic quantum mechanics and the Dirac equation.

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8000 Level Courses

PHYS8010 Quantum Field Theory I
Credits: 3
The first of a two-course sequence introducing the basic areas of modern quantum field theory, including the quantization of free fields and gauge fields, perturbative techniques, symmetries and symmetry breaking, and the renormalization group.

PHYS8011 Quantum Field Theory II
Credits: 3
Prerequisites
The second of a two-course sequence introducing the basic areas of modern quantum field theory, including the quantization of free fields and gauge fields, perturbative techniques, symmetries and symmetry breaking, and the renormalization group.

PHYS8015 Particle Physics I
Credits: 3
First of a two-course sequence covering the basic phenomena of high energy particle physics. The material covered in the course will be drawn from both experiment and theory.

PHYS8016 Particle Physics II
Credits: 3
Prerequisites
Second of a two-course sequence covering the basic phenomena of high energy particle physics. The material covered in the course will be drawn from both experiment and theory.

PHYS8025 Astrophysics I
Credits: 3
Introduction to modern astrophysics, including stellar structure, compact objects, the interstellar medium, galactic structure, extragalactic astronomy, particle astrophysics and cosmology.

PHYS8026 Astrophysics II
Credits: 3
Prerequisites
Second of a two-course sequence introducing modern astrophysics, including stellar structure, compact objects, the interstellar medium, galactic structure, extragalactic astronomy, particle astrophysics and cosmology.

PHYS8030 Advanced Statistical Physics
Credits: 3
The course focuses on the statistical physics of fields. Material covered includes phase transitions and the theory of renormalization group.

PHYS8031 Many Body Theory
Credits: 3
The formalism of second quantization, Green's functions, and Feynman diagrams will be introduced and applied to the many body physics of fermions and bosons in condensed matter systems. Both perturbative and non-perturbative methods will be covered. Recent developments and advances will be discussed where appropriate.

PHYS8035 Condensed Matter Physics I
Credits: 3
First part of a two-course sequence covering and surveying a broad spectrum of topics in condensed matter physics. Topics will include but are not limit to: the physics of electrons and ions in solids, crystalline structures, phonons, metals, insulators, semiconductors, magnetism, and superconductivity. The material covered in the course will be drawn from both experiment and theory.

PHYS8036 Condensed Matter Physics II
Credits: 3
Prerequisites
Second part of a two-course sequence covering and surveying a broad spectrum of topics in condensed matter physics. Topics will include but are not limit to: the physics of electrons and ions in solids, crystalline structures, phonons, metals, insulators, semiconductors, magnetism, and superconductivity. The material covered in the course will be drawn from both experiment and theory.

PHYS8038 Experimental Methods in Condensed Matter Physics
Credits: 3
An introduction to the predominant experimental techniques used in modern condensed matter physics.

PHYS8041 Advanced Topics in Computational Physics
Credits: 3
Study of Monte Carlo methods, numerical integration, solution of linear and partial differential equations, eigenvalue problems, parallel computing, solution of integral equations, the renormalization group and topics of current interest.

PHYS8051C Physics by Inquiry I
Credits: 4
Prerequisites
The first part of a two-course sequence of a combination lecture-laboratory course for science teachers. It covers important introductory concepts in physics with depth and with an emphasis on the development of reasoning skills necessary for scientific inquiry. The course is based on the results of physics education research and uses inquiry-based laboratory activities, cooperative learning groups, and both traditional and alternative methods of assessment that emphasize scientific reasoning.

PHYS8052C Physics by Inquiry II
Credits: 4
Prerequisites
The second part of a two-course sequence of a combination lecture-laboratory course for science teachers. It covers important introductory concepts in physics with depth and with an emphasis on the development of reasoning skills necessary for scientific inquiry. The course is based on the results of physics education research and uses inquiry-based laboratory activities, cooperative learning groups, and both traditional and alternative methods of assessment that emphasize scientific reasoning.

PHYS8054 Graduate Seminar in Physics Education
Credits: 1
Prerequisites
A graduate seminar on the teaching of physics and research in physics education.

PHYS8071 Advanced Problems
Credits: 1
Introduction to physics research at the graduate level under the supervision of an individual faculty member.

PHYS8072 Research for the Master's Degree
Credits: 1
Continuation of research at the graduate level for an M.S. thesis.

PHYS8090 Graduate Colloquium
Credits: 1
Attendance at the weekly series of physics colloquia given by research scientists from within and outside of the University of Cincinnati.

PHYS8091 Advanced Seminar
Credits: 1
Attendance at one or more weekly seminar series such as the astro-particle or condensed matter seminars given by research scientists from within and outside of the University of Cincinnati.

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9000 Level Courses

PHYS9010 Advanced Topics in Quantum Field Theory
Credits: 3
Topics may include non-perturbative methods in field theory, supersymmetry and supergravity, introduction to string theory, conformal field theories, AdS/CFT correspondence, general relativity, early universe cosmology, or others. May be taken twice (if different topics are covered).

PHYS9015 Advanced Topics in Particle Physics
Credits: 3
Topics may include models of electroweak symmetry breaking, fermion mass generation, strongly coupled quantum field theories, or others. May be taken twice (if different topics are covered).

PHYS9020 Advanced Topics in Astrophysics
Credits: 3
Topics may include stellar structure, compact objects, galaxy formation, general relativity, particle astrophysics, cosmology, or others. May be taken twice (if different topics are covered).

PHYS9031 Advanced Topics in Many Body Theory
Credits: 3
Topics may include field theoretic techniques specific to condensed matter physics, renormalization group techniques, advanced and novel non-perturbative methods, or others. May be taken twice (if different topics are covered).

PHYS9035 Advanced Topics in Condensed Matter Physics
Credits: 3
Topics may include advanced techniques or new developments in theoretical or experimental condensed matter physics. May be taken twice (if different topics are covered).

PHYS9070 Special Topics in Modern Physics
Credits: 3
Topics may be drawn from any area of physics or from inter-disciplinary areas with major physics content. May be taken twice (if different topics are covered).

PHYS9071 Research for the Doctorate
Credits: 1
Continuation of research at the graduate level for a Ph.D. dissertation.

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Semester Based Physics Department Courses